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Photovoltaic systems for grid connection

16 March 2017

An photovoltaic systems for grid connection is a system that aims to produce electrical energy (from solar radiation) under conditions suitable to be injected into a conventional power grid. Obviously, it is a set of electronic and electrical equipment.

Photovoltaic systems are usually classified into three main groups:

  • Grid connected, SFCR
  • Autonomous (off-grid)
  • Pumping

In this article, we will only consider grid systems and one of its subdivisions (plants on the ground).

Photovoltaic Network Connection Systems (SFCR)

  • The SFCRs have the function of producing electrical energy that is injected integrally in the conventional network.
  • They do not need to incorporate energy storage equipment, since they do not have to meet any direct consumer demand.
  • An SFCR is composed of the photovoltaic generator, a DC / AC inverter and a set of electrical protections.

The inverter equipment compatibles the power produced by the photovoltaic generator to the conditions of the conventional electrical network.

These systems (the connected ones to network) can in turn be divided into systems installed on floor and systems in edificación.

  • Ground systems, exclusively designed to produce energy, usually exceed 100kW of power
  • Systems in buildings are systems smaller than those installed on floors, usually of powers less than 100 kW. Frequently more complex than that of an photovoltaic systems for grid connection on soil

Photovoltaic systems for grid connection on soil:

They aim to maximize the annual energy production of the system with the lowest cost and the lowest possible land occupation. They are usually classified in:

  • STATIC systems, with fixed inclination and orientation
  • FOLLOWING systems, which vary the position of the generator throughout the day and year to maximize the effective incident radiation

There are different modalities of monitoring systems:

  •  Double axis, that manages to aim at the sun with precision throughout its route.
  •  Azimuth tracking, which sacrifices a movement (generator tilt) to get systems more economical. Its use is decreasing in comparison to the double axis method.
  •  Polar tracking. The only axis on which the spin is produced is inclined parallel to the axis of rotation of the Earth, making the generator appear in the sun as perpendicular to its rays during much of the route. Nevertheless, the structural complications and difficulties of its implantation have caused that its use is occasional.
  • Horizontal follow-up with North-South axis. Its advantages are the simplicity and structural stability, the ease of motorization, as well as the best use of the ground in relation to a double axle system.

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