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Carbon footprint. Effects on Climate Change.

20 November 2019

I think it is not too late to build an utopia that allows us to share the land. Gabriel García Márquez.

We expose an outline of the different agreements and disagreements according to countries in the search for a basic understanding on climate change. We include some press headlines that we have considered significant.

BACKGROUND AND RETICENCE OF THE COUNTRIES.

1992. Foundation in Rio de Janeiro of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

195 countries sign the agreement. Objective: to achieve the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions.

1997. Kyoto Protocol.

The Protocol introduced legally binding objectives. Apparently in force since 2005.

2010. “Japan refuses to continue with Kyoto if China and the US do not commit." As reported by atresmedia.com (26/10/2010)
2013-20. 2nd period of the Kyoto Protocol. 38 countries (including EU-28). The Doha Amendment 2012 (COP 18) is applied to the Kyoto Protocol relating to the commitments of the second period: minimum reduction target at 18% 1990 levels. The USA, Canada does not participate in the Kyoto Protocol ; regarding the 2nd period  neither Russia, Japan or New Zealand participates, therefore Kyoto protocol only applies to 14% of global emissions.
2015. The EU ratifies the Doha Amendment. The Kyoto Protocol is extended by establishing a new commitment period to reduce greenhouse gas emissions until December 31, 2020
Nov-Dec 2015. Paris Agreement. COP 21. Legally binding. The emission reduction objectives of each country will not be binding. The text does not explicitly announce the amount of emissions to be reduced.

New global agreement on climate change that includes all the countries of the UNFCCC. It will become effective when it meets the ratification (post-signing process) of 55 countries that account for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Includes signatory countries of the UNFCCC. In force since Nov 2016 ratified by 55 countries. Absent: Saudi Arabia (1/4 world oil reserves).

The priority objective is that the average temperature of the planet, reached 2100, does not exceed 2ºC with respect to pre-industrial levels; the efforts must be directed towards an even smaller average increase, up to 1.5 º C.

2016. “The US joins China and ratifies the agreement on the climate of Paris”. Headline of mundo.es el 3/09/2016
Nov 2017. COP 23 in Bonn. From November 6 to 18, it took place in Bonn. Objective: accelerate the fulfillment of the objectives of the Paris Agreement on climate change.
March 2018.

China achieved its carbon emissions target for 2020 three years earlier than expected with the help of the country's carbon trading system (…) By the end of 2017, China had reduced carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 46 percent from 2005 level, fulfilling its commitment to reduce carbon emissions by 40 to 45 percent from 2005 level for 2020, according to UNFCCC on 03/28/2018.

Dec 2018 COP 24 Katowice. attendants 197 countries.

Teresa Ribera, Minister of Ecological Transition, comments on 15/12/2018 in RTE.es/EFE “This roadmap is 'a motor of change' which will allow progress towards greater ambition, in line with the content of that United Nations scientific report (IPCC).

One of the achievements of this agreement has been to establish a set of common rules, a transparency mechanism, for each country to report on its progress in the fight against climate change to the rest of the international community.

These transparency rules, which will come into effect from 2024, are very important to give "credibility" to a system in which each country decides its climate actions, the Spanish minister stressed.”

REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL. The EU and the Paris Agreement on climate change: balance of progress made at the Katowice COP. 2018.

Nov 2019: “Trump reports to quit Paris Agreement against climate change” Amanda Mars, elpaís.com 05/09/2019

CARBON DIOXIDE ISSUES AT GLOBAL LEVEL AND AT EU FIELD.

The latest version of EDGAR, offers an overview of fossil CO2 emissions, country by country and for the 1990-2017 interval:

 “The global trend of GHG emissions has increased since the beginning of the 21st century compared to the previous three decades, mainly due to the increase in CO2 emissions from China and other emerging economies.

CO2 emissions within the EU28 have decreased in the last two decades. Despite decreasing trends for total CO2 emissions in the EU28, CO2 emissions per capita within the EU28 remain higher than the global average value ”(datosmacro.expansion.com).

We review the data provided by a mandatory page when it comes to carbon dioxide and its emissions: Global Carbon Budget.

Given the huge amounts of energy that will be required in the coming years globally and the GHG levels that will be generated, it would be necessary to meditate on the UN IPCC report (already cited) that warns about the severe effects on the planet's surface that will occur, even if it’s only for a "minimum" differences in degrees Celsius.

Grupo T-Solar is involved in this fight for Climate Change with its contribution of green, clean and sustainable energy.

Grupo T-Solar's solar plants generated more than 604 GWh of clean electricity in 2018 equivalent to the average annual electricity consumption of approximately 639,000 inhabitants, the reforestation of 12,800,000 trees and photovoltaic plants avoided more than 216,000 tons of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere. For Grupo T-Solar, the environment and social responsibility are part of his corporate strategy.

Let's see below some graphs on the global evolution of the demands of primary energy and the corresponding CO2 emissions.

The following is taken from Fossil CO2 emissions of all world countries, a report issued by the UN in 2018 and that includes data from the Edgar bank.

We present others on CO2 emissions and the EU, with EC source.

 

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